An examination of defluoridation by industrial grade limestone indicated that a combination of precipitation and adsorption of fluoride can be effective for defluoridation of water Pre acidified fluoride water using two edible acids viz acetic acid (AA) and citric acid (CA) have been used for treatment by crushed limestone of diameter 3 4 mm to precipitate fluoride as CaF 2 in.Read More
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With consistent removal of fluoride from any initial concentration to a desired concentration a recurring cost of only Rs 0 005 l of water and an estimated life of the limestone bed of about 50.
Of the acid to water before treatment with crushed limestone lowers the F concentration from its initial value of 10 mg L to below 2 mg L which is much better compared to the fluoride removal by limestone filtration alone 14 The ability of the crushed limestone chips to remove F increased with increasing the acid concentration.
A two column limestone reactor has been designed to reduce fluoride concentrations from wastewaters to below the maximum contaminant level (MCL limit) of 4 mg L The reactor functions by forcing calcite (CaCO3) to dissolve and fluorite (CaF2) to precipitate in the first column The second column is not necessary to remove fluoride but is used to precipitate the calcite dissolved in the first.
Fluoride contamination of groundwater both anthropogenic and natural is a major problem worldwide In this study fluoride removal by crushed limestone (99 pure calcite) was investigated by batch studies and surface sensitive techniques from solutions with fluoride concentra tions from 150 μmol L (3 mg L) to 110 mM (∼2100 mg L).
This fluoride removal efficiency was higher than with the limestone reactor of Reardon and Wang (by a further reduction of 1 19 mg L fluoride in total) yet still lower than the predicted efficiency One important reason of the lower fluoride removal efficiency than with prediction is that the citrate ions suppressed the precipitation of calcite.
However a fluoride removal method which is low cost safe environment friendly and can be used by a layman without requiring power is still not available recently reWe ported a fluoride removal technique based on phosphoric acid crushed limestone treatment (PACLT) which meets most of the above mentioned requirements (Gogoi 2015).
Jul 29 2010 Fluoride removal to less than 0 5 and 1 0 mg L from initial 5 and 10 mg L respectively have been achieved by the method on treatment with single reactor The mechanism of fluoride removal in the process thought to be the increase in Ca 2+ activity by dissolution of limestone.
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4 11 Because of the high calcium content in limestone the native amounts of calcium in the sample aliquants are utilized during many of the preconcentration steps such as the calcium carbonate calcium phosphate or calcium fluoride precipitation steps Additional calcium is not added during these steps to avoid problems associated with.
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This study investigates the feasibility of three low cost adsorbents (calcium carbonate activated alumina and activated sugarcane ash) for the removal of fluoride ions by adsorption using a.
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